Tag Archives: New Mexico

New Mexico Indian Agent William F. M. Arny and the 1870 Census

I recently got my hands on a copy of William F. M. Arny’s journal.  Arny was an Indian Agent that just so happened to perform the enumeration for the Nambe Pueblo Reservation my great great grandfather lived on.  His name first caught my attention when I was scouring over every part of the 1870 census record.  He had written his name as W.F.M. Arny Special Agent in a very bold script.  His name and style stood out to me so I started to investigate him and what an Indian Agent did during 1870.  Learning about Arny also helped clear up my double census record issue I had for my great grand father in 1870.
wfm-arny
The federal government first enacted Indian Agents in 1793 under the Second Trade and Intercourse Act. The job of the Indian Agent was to guide the Indians into assimilation and to settle conflicts between Indians and citizens.
As I researched who Arny really was, I came across a reference that mentioned he had written a journal during his time in New Mexico so I searched WorldCat to see if I could find a copy.  No such luck in finding one locally but I was able to get a copy on inter-library loan.  Arny kept the journal from May to September 28th during his time as the Indian Agent to New Mexico in 1870.  He updated his log daily and every now and then he would make mention of an Indian’s name he had interacted with.  At first I was reading the journal to try and find the day he performed the enumeration on my great great grandfather’s reservation, just to see what daily life was like, and secretly hoping he mentioned Antonio Lujan’s family.  But then I decided to extract any passages that specifically mentioned an Indian by name.  I hope that others researching the indigenous people of New Mexico find this information helpful.
Indian Agent in New Mexico: the journal of special agent W. F. M. Arny, 1870.
 
p.17 May 26th
Sabatur, the head chief of the Ute bands said he wanted their country also.
 
p.21 May 26th
Left camp on the Rio Los Pino and was overtaken by Joseph a Wemenuche Indian who swam the Rio Las Animas.  He said the Wemenuche on the Plata, Mancos, and Dolores rivers said they do not want to fight.
 
p. 23 May 28th
Here we were met by Curmvotche and Ignacio who were with 21 lodges of Capote and Wemenuche Utes.
 
p. 26 June 8th
Spent the morning in an enumeration with the jemes Pueblo, there are 344 persons only 4 can read and write.  In the afternoon we traveled to the Indian village of Zia on the Jemes River.  A total of 121 souls live and one can read and write.  There are 6 Albinos at Jemes.
 
p. 27 June 10th
Traveled to San Mateo a Mexican town of 51 families.  Here resides Ramon Baca whose father, three brothers, and 2 nephews were killed at one time by Navajoes.
 
p. 28 June 13th
Reached Fort Defiance Indian Agency, Navajo agency.
 
p. 29 June 17th
Met Cabeson, Powarie, Hijo Cabeza Blanco who with nearly 3,000 Wemenuches are on the Rio Plata (Silver River).  After taking an enumeration of them they said “they wanted their agency at Rio Los Pinos as Abiquiu was too far off.
 
p.30 June 21st
Passed down the mountain to “Chapel Peak” and passed by “Red Lake,” “Black Lake,” and “Grants Peak” to the road to Fort Defiance.  Traveled 27 miles today and spent 2 hours on Red Lake hunting rubies [garnets], which are thrown up on ant hills.
 
p. 30 June 22-23rd
Spent the day at Fort Defiance talking with Navajo.
 
p.31 June 24th
Left Fort Defiance in company with rev. J. M. Roberts, my interpreter, herder, and Pino a navajo chief, as guide.
 
p.31 June 25th
Reached Zuni village there were 1,530.  There are 21 orphan children and only one can read and write.  They would like a teacher. $1200.00 a year to sustain a person who would teach these people practical farming and start an English school for their children.  Boys 156, girls 177, total 333.  These Indians have no title to their land.  Congress establishing a reservation where they are and to give them little to a sufficient amount of land.
 
p.32 June 28th
At Fort defiance met 20 Indians from Moqui [Hopi] villages in Arizona.  There are 7 villages of these Indians, viz:  Oraiva, Tho-mon-pa-vi, Tano, Ci-cho-mo-pi, Mi-shom-qu-na-vi, and Sha-pan-lavi.  They number 1,560 Indians, none can read or write.
 
p. 33 June 30th
The Navajos live in Hogans, huts built of mud and bushes.  Found Estufas places of worship in the village of the Pueblo Indians.
 
p.35 July 3-4th
At Fort Defiance met Augua Grande whose camp and people are at “Mesa de los Calabasas” ( Table Land of the Pumpkins).  He has 1,000 Navajoes with him.
 
p. 36 Aug 2nd
Pueblo of Tesque and enumerated the Tesque Indians.  In the village there are 98 persons, 3 of whom can read and write.
 
p.37 Aug. 3
Took census of the Pojuaque Indian village.  This pueblo has a population of 32 persons which 2 can read and write.  On the lands of the Pueblo are 39 citizens.  The Indians said these citizens have lived there ever since the Governor can remember, and before he was born, and they are willing to allow them to remain and hold the land as it was sold to them by the Indians, except Juan Ortiz, who has taken land from them by force.
Traveled 4 miles and took the census of the Pueblo of Nambe.  Like the Pueblo of Pojuaque they are willing to let the Mexicans that occupy land keep them.  They have always got along peaceably and will endeaver to continue so.  In this pueblo there are 78 persons, 36 children.  Only 1 Indian can read and write, they would be glad to have a school.
 
p.37 Aug 4-5th
Spent these 2 days enumerating the citizens on the lands of the Pueblo of Pojuaque and Nambe.
 
p. 37 Aug 6th
Engaged in enumerating the people on the pojuaque reservation and reached Quayam Munge [Cuyamunge].  The ruins of the old Pueblo village is on a creek between Tesuque and Pojuague.  In 1598 the Indians deserted it and the Spanish took possession of it.  The land was afterwards included in the survey of the Pojoaque grant.  The present inhabitants are descendants of the Spainards, who took possession after its desertion by Indians.
 
Acoma, an enumeration of whose citizens I also took being part of the Pojoaque reserve, as surveyed by the U.S.  also a deserted village and taken by the Spaniards.  All these landson all the Pueblo reservations and grants, occupied in this way, or by sale from the Indians, should be secured by an act of Congress to the citizens who have occupied them for years.  Took enumeration of Indians at Ildefonso contains 156 Indians, total of 373 citizens.
 
p.41 Aug 11th
Traveled to Pueblo of Santa Clara.  Theyhave had school every winter for 4 years, paid the teacher themselves.  Consequently they have 11 children who can read and write a little in Spanish.  Population 189 Indians; There are 448 citizens on this reservation.
 
 p. 42 Aug 12th
Feast day at Santa Clara. Met GreatChinecha and his squaws, Jicarilla Apaches.
 
p. 44 Aug 23rd
met with Pueblos of Picuris Padre Medina the Roman Catholic Priest.
 
p.46 Aug 31st
Mohuache Ute 497
Jicarilla Apache 864
 
p.47 Sept 5th
Village of Taos,  Red Willow Pueblo Indians, 397 souls, not one can read or write.  They want a school for 159 children.
 
South to Apaches
 
p.48 Sept 17th
Left Abiquiu and traveled to San Juan, 20 miles.  Met a Jicarilla Apache with his family, asked his name, answered, “Quien Sabe.”
 
p.49 Sept 28th
Rode to Pueblo of Cochite.  There are 243 Indians in this pueblo of which 97 are children, only 3 persons can read and write.  Manuelito Herrera 89 years old, went to Old Mexico in 1816 to get a decision in regard to citizens on their lands.  The Mexican government by their highest tribunal decided that the sale of the Ranche of Pena Blanca by the Indians was a nullity (see Excreches page 216, appendix, last edition).
 
The Indians including this old man are now willing to let the citizens have the land and ask the Government to provide means to give them a title for it.  On this grant there are 371 citizens of whom 30 can read and write.
 
p.50 Sept 29th
One  thing I noticed with all the Pueblo Indians, they desire to be cleanly but lack the means.
 
p.51 Oct 1st
There are no citizens on the lands of these Indians, Pueblo of San Felipe.
 
p.51 Oct 3rd
Pueblo of Santa Ana, they want whip saws to saw lumber and wool cards.  They are industrious and honest.  Rode 16 miles to the Pueblo of Sandia.  No citizens on their land grant except 3 families, who were placed their by Catholic priest who lives at Bernalillo.  186 Indians here, 70 children, 9 orphans.
 
p.52 Oct 4th
Attending court in Albuquerque for persons tried who have sold whiskey and ammunition to the Apache Indians as they should know better than to encouage the savages to murder and rob for their benefit.
 
p.52 Oct 6th
Traveled to Pueblo of Laguna.  Their lands were confirmed by Congress June 21, 1860.  On this grant there are the following villages, known as the Pueblo of Laguna:
Laguna
Santa Ana
Rincon
Mecito Negro
Casa Blanca
Pojuate
Incenal
Total 928 Indians, 344 children
 
p.53 Oct 7th
Traveled to Pueblo of Acoma they are the largest and best physically developed Indians I have seen in New Mexico.
 
p. 53 Oct 8th
Met Navajo’s Cubero and Sibelleta on the road to El Rito.
 
p. 54 Oct 14
Went 38 miles today to Socorro.  West of Socorro about 20 miles there is plenty of lands, wood, water, and grass to sustain 3,000 Indians I believe, the best place for a reservation for Southern Apaches.
 
p. 54 Oct 15
Traveled 35 miles to Fort Craig.
 
p.56 Oct 20
North of Canada Alamosa met Indians Loco and Victoria, 2 chiefs, and after talking with them they started to find Cochise and bring in the people.
 
p.56 Oct 21st
Cochise with the captains and Headmen of the different bands of Southern Apaches having council.  790 Indians of the following bands:
Cayoteros
Chilicous [Chiricahuas]
Mimbres and Gila bands
Mogollon Bands and Mescaleros
 
Cochise, who claimed to be head chief of all of the above bands in place of Mangus Colorado who was killed some years ago, spoke in their behalf and said that he had been to Camp Thomas.  He answered that since 1860 he had been to war and sought to justify himself for doing so.  He confessed that he had been guilty of murders and robberies.  Said he had more women and children than he could take care of and fight.
 
Cochise and his Indians have probably committed more murders and outrages than any other Indians during the last 10 years.
 
Total miles traveled:3114.5